Archive for December, 2008

REST Resource Modeling

December 17, 2008

If I had to pick two top REST features, they would be resource modeling and resource representation. In this blog entry I explore the former with specific reference to a recent REST project I worked on.

Resource modeling refers to defining a resource name space and constructing the corresponding identifying URLs.

Some key issues in resource modeling are:

  • Define basic resources based on domain model – business objects become resources
  • Transform those non-CRUD business operations into resources and pick appropriate HTTP methods
  • Define URL namespace
    • Opaque URLs or not?
    • Express resource relationships as URL hierarchies or embed them in the representation?
  • Should we make user account explicit or implicit in the URL?
  • Other issues: matrix parameters, query parameters, queries

Basic Resources

Core business objects can be easily transformed into corresponding resources. Assume we have the following domain objects:

  • Video
  • Genre
  • Playlist – three concrete types: static playlist, dynamic playlist or playlist group
  • Player

The resource URLs could be:

  • /v1/ACCOUNT/videos
  • /v1/ACCOUNT/genres
  • /v1/ACCOUNT/playlists
  • /v1/ACCOUNT/players

There are typically five basic CRUD operations that we may want to perform on these resources:

  • Get all resources – GET /v1/ACCOUNT/videos
  • Get one resource – GET /v1/ACCOUNT/videos/1776
  • Modify one resource – PUT /v1/ACCOUNT/videos/1776
  • Add one resource – POST /v1/ACCOUNT/videos
  • Delete one resource – DELETE /v1/ACCOUNT/videos/1776

Note that Get all and the POST operations do not have a resource ID.

One seemingly minor but important note: you have to decide whether to use the singular or plural name for the resource – video or videos. Do not use both! I recently encountered a proposal for having /videos to return all videos and /video/1812 when you want to return one video. This makes little sense to me – there is one resource called video (or videos) not two resources – video and videos.

Non-Basic Resources

Unfortunately, not all business requirements can be mapped into the CRUD-like resource paradigm. What needs to be done is to noun-ify the “verb-like” business functionality by creating an “artificial” resource noun and then apply one of the verbs. Often it is not apparent if a POST or PUT is more appropriate.

The problem is how do we transform verbs into nouns? If we need to perform an operation on a resource that cannot fit into one of the four HTTP verbs, what to do? How do we come up with an intuitive resource name and then figure out which verb is most applicable. There are no real guidelines, and an inordinate amount of time can be spent on this exercise.

With SOAP you would simply create a new operation and be done with it. Obviously, the freedom to pick any operation name is a definite advantage of SOAP. I have seen meetings get bogged down in this morass. Typically the business analysts couldn’t care less how you implement their requirement while the architect has to worry about maintaining the semantic and logic coherence of the service.

An example that I faced in a recent project, where we received a new business requirement to recall and distribute videos. We already had our standard methods for a video, and the question was how to represent this in the best REST-ian fashion? Should we invent a new synthetic resources

  • /service/v1/videorecall
  • /service/v1/videodistribute

and then execute a POST. Somehow this “smells bad” – frankly there really is no concept such as video recall object. It seems that the noun-ify the verb pattern doesn’t fit the bill. Ultimately, the solution we opted for was POST with:

  • /service/v1/videos/recall
  • /service/v1/videos/distribute

Opaque URLs

Surprisingly even such an important topic such as the nature of a resource URL is not an agreed upon topic in the REST community. One school contends that human-understandable URLs are crucial, while the other side argues that clients should not assume any meaning to the internal structure of the URL. Suffice to say, that the understandable URL makes a more compelling case in my opinion.

Resource relationships

Resources have relationships to other resources. These relationships can be expressed in two basic ways:

  • Relationships specified in the URL as a hierarchical name compound
  • Relationships embedded in the output representation
    • Target resource as link
    • Target resource with details

An example best illustrates the issue. Our video resource has a many-to-many relationship with genres (categories).

In the URL approach, the following URL would retrieve the genres of a given video: /videos/1776/genres. The core resource /videos/1776 would retrieve only basic data for the video. If you wanted to obtain any relationships you would have to issue another call. To get permissions for a video: /videos/1776/permissions.


The embedded approach returns basic data for the video as well as relationship information. You still have to make a decision if you want link or detailed information on the references.

Relationships as links:

<name>Touching the Void</name>
<link href="" />
<link href="" />

Relationships as details:

<name>Touching the Void</name>

There are advantages and disadvantages with all approaches and ultimately the choice depends on your intended uses cases. The situation is also complicated by the PUT and POST methods. Typically you would want to use the same representation (data format) for GET and PUT/POST.

The URL Relationship patterns can lead to a chatty protocol since if your use case typically wants to grab all information related to a video, you would have to make 1+n calls where n is the number of video associations. It can be equally expensive to create or modify videos. Furthermore, if your object model requires mandatory relationships, the URL Relationship pattern cannot satisfy this requirement.

Google YouTube API uses the URL-based relationships. For example a video has an optional one-to-many association with comments. If there are comments for the video, the resource representation for a GET will contain a URL to a collection representing the comments.

<gd:feedLink href=""   countHint="993"/>


Make user explicit or implicit in the URL?

Most services have a concept of a current user (or account). The question then is, should we expose this user name in the URL or not?

  • /service/v1/USER/videos/1519
  • /service/v1/videos/1519

Both styles would require standard authentication. The case can be made that having the user name in the URL is redundant with authentication. On the other hand, if we want a richer URL hierarchy which would allow a user to access another user’s resources (with permissions, of course), then having the user name in the URL is important.

Resource Query Language

Any service will inevitably need some way to filter the amount of data returned. This is a complex topic, but it is worth to briefly examine some salient points. When designing a REST service, this can be a very important and time consuming task, so be prepared for significant effort.

Bare-bones REST offers us two basic ways to retrieve data:
Conceptually, we want to issue three kinds of GET requests:

  • Get all resources – /videos
  • Get one resources – /videos/1492
  • Get some resources – /videos?some_query_syntax

Bare-bones REST inherently supports the first two – the constraint-qualified GET presents us with a conundrum.

There is unfortunately no standard way to express a query and each vendor provides their own syntax. So when you are designing a REST service and you need querying (you will eventually need it), you will have to go through a non-trivial process to design a query language. This requires specifying the grammar, documenting it with examples, making it consistent across all resources, and writing lots of tests (hint: think combinatorial explosion of query options).

In my recent project we were fortunate to already have an in-house XPath dialect for our key domain objects. We were able to use (without modifications) this dialect for our internal domain service, internal and external SOAP services, as well as adapting it to the REST service with trivial effort. This was truly an example where proper foresight handsomely paid off. An example:

  • /videos?q=@id=’1776′
  • /videos?q=@name=’Aconcagua Adventures’
  • /videos?q=@id=’152′ or @id=’153′
  • /videos?q=@creationDate = xs:dateTime(‘2008-07-29T18:10:36.900Z’)

Some links on public web API query syntaxes:



ADO.NET Data Services:


Adventures in REST-alandia

December 11, 2008


I recently managed a REST project from inception to deployment. As in any endeavor, there were quite a few interesting lessons to be learned.

I had long evangelized REST at this company, and finally got a chance to implement my “dream”. Although loath to use the word “fun”, I admit it was so albeit a lot of work. REST, as we all know, is a “style” and not a “spec”, so much is left to non-standard interpretation. I worked on this project right after a SOAP/WSDL project so it was interesting to compare the pluses and minuses (cost/benefit analysis) of both.

Our REST service exposes two kinds of features for video playlists and playlist groups – basic CRUD operations and more complex business-specific operations. The former are a good fit for REST – the latter are not such a good fit.

  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/playlists/1776
  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/videos/1066
  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/players/1054
  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/genres
  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/permissions
  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/release

One of more interesting outcomes was the active use of the live REST system by our business analyst. Granted he’s a sharp cookie, but as any one of us, he’s a very busy person. The fact that he managed to quickly teach himself the basics of HTTP GET, PUT and POST using Google’s restclient tool, underscores the lower barrier-of-entry of REST over SOAP and the former’s ultimate advantage. This is a good example of the empowering nature of an “on-site customer” which is so important to agile projects. Once the basic REST model is comprehended, its “intuitive” nature is easily grasped.

Resource Representation

We ended up using our own custom XML vocabulary defined by an XSD. I had seriously considered using Atom Pub as our format since I had been on an intense Atom-learning binge, but after careful cost-benefit analysis, I opted for custom XSD. XSD was a known and Java has better tools for Java-binding with XMLBeans. I was initially “surprised” to learn that Atom doesn’t have a normative XSD or RelaxNG schema, and even though there are rocking Abdera and Rome toolkits out there, at the end of the day you are still obligated to manually map XML to Java (and vice versa). The automated and faithful binding of XMLBeans is a compelling advantage.

Our data model would obviously require significant Atom namespace extensions, and there was obviously lots of extra work here in the too few months we had to roll out our application. We already had a doc/lit SOAP service deployed with its own XSD, so reusing this grammar was another reason to go the custom XML route. Finally, there was no compelling business reason to use Atom, and no-one else except me was familiar (or interested) with Atom. All in all the risk outweighed the benefit. Shameless plug: this is what you get when you hire me – objective advice not tainted by latest sexy trends even though it might be better for my resume to have that latest trend on it!

Nevertheless, the framework did have built-in support for content negotiation, so besides the standard XML format, Atom, MRSS and JSON were returned for selected resources as an experimental next-generation feature. All you have to do is specify a query parameter “format=atom” for GET and lo and behold the format would be different. Conneg is truly one of the key distinguishing features of REST from other paradigms that can take a while to get used to. Since it is such a paradigm shift, the consequent plethora of rich opportunities are not immediately apparent. From an implementation perspective, the pluggable nature of Spring dependency injection readily leads itself to variant formats.


REST proponents make much of the simplicity of returning standard HTTP error codes, but upon further examination some serious limitations of this approach are apparent:

  • HTTP error codes are split into 400 client and 500 server errors. This is definitely unlike most standard programming use cases.
  • HTTP error codes are not rich enough to capture business errors.

As we all know, happy path programming is never adequate, and true enterprise-style applications have to account for a wide variety of errors. Paying business clients do NOT want to see Java exceptions or stack traces – but the cost of mapping these to intelligent error messages can carry a non-trivial cost. Much depends on the imagination of the product owners – they need to envision how negative the down-stream cost of confusing and incoherent error messages will be on the client and insist that development put in place an exception handling mechanism that will deliver accurate and understandable messages.

It just seems that a simple concept such as an error reporting mechanism and format could be standardized upon. SOAP has the SOAP Fault element, and all SOAP applications can interoperably process an application’s errors. We need to build upon HTTP errors and have a richer mechanism.

Client and Server Error Codes

The distinction between errors caused by the client or server is not typically encountered in non-REST programming scenarios. This is a prime example of one of those pesky “devil in the details” (Tasmanian devil?) that can cause inordinate grief. For every error encountered, we have to decide whether is a client or server error. The need to pass down the client/server context to a the culprit exception is a non-trivial exercise.

For example, assume we have an XML syntax error on a playlist representation. If this error generated by the client or the server? If it is an inbound request, a 4xx client error code should be generated. If the error is encountered when returning a response, a 5xx code should be returned since it is the server that messed up. The upshot is this: unlike “normal cases” the context (client or server) has to be passed down to every place where an XML syntax error could be encountered. Ugh! This is definitely a lot of work. Much simpler to return the ubiquitous 500 for most everything even though it ain’t pretty.

The inevitable choice:

  • Dispense with this expensive error cause differentiation and return less helpful error messages.
  • Be faithful to the spirit of REST/HTTP and give clients informative and intelligent messages but pay a non-significant cost.

Adequacy of HTTP Error Codes

The HTTP model supports a limited range of errors codes – some for the server and some for the client. Surprisingly, there is no extension mechanism available to supply application-specific error codes. Of course, the HTTP response Reason Phrase can be used, but what is missing is a code – a well-known extensible value that a program can switch on.
Only two server error messages – 500 (Internal Server Error) or 501 (Not Implemented) are available. Obviously, this is hardly adequate to account for real-life error cases.

Client error codes are similar – 400 (Bad Request. The request contains bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled) or 409 (Conflict). For example, if the client specified a non-existent video for a playlist, how can we convey the precise message to the client? It is not a syntax error – its a semantic error. HTTP has no provision for the latter. A 409 typically represents a concurrent update clash or a unique constraint.

Two non-standard solutions for returning application-specific error codes:

  • Return the application error code in the response body
  • Return the application error code in a custom response header, e.g. X-MyApp-Error-Code

Response body error messages require the client to switch on the returned content. This implies that errors that must be trapped by standard Servlet web.xml features are for the whole web application. If the REST service owns the WAR that is OK – if it shares it with other services (our case), then it has to account for error use cases of these other services – not a necessarily a non-trivial task if you are adding a new service to an existing multi-service WAR.

Response headers have the advantage of consistency in that the client looks for errors only in one place. The client checks for “major” errors in the standard HTTP Status Code – and “minor” errors in a custom HTTP header.

Resource Modeling Limitations

Classical CRUD semantics for resources are a good fit for REST services. Inevitably however, more complex business requirements that enlist several resources are not as easily supported by REST.

The unlimited operation name space of SOAP operations allows you to easily add any new functionality that the business mandates. The constraining nature of four HTTP verbs can often make it difficult to come up with an appropriate resource name. Noun-ifying a new operation doesn’t seem to be always the best course. As a conscientious designer, I want to keep my resource model as coherent as possible and REST compliant. Pragmatically, business people are less concerned about this, and often time pressures can lead us to add non-REST-ian resource names. With SOAP you just add a new operation name and some arguments – with REST there can be a lot of hand-wringing and “religious discussions” on what is the best approach. Again, this is one of the consequences of implementing a “style” as opposed to a “specification”.

Moving a Playlist from one Playlist Group to Another

For example, we encountered the problem of moving a child playlist from one playlist group to another. Assume we want to move “Beyonce 30-th Birthday” playlist from “My Playlist Group” to “Your Playlist Group”. There is no natural REST mapping of this use case – a lot of extra cognitive overhead has to be expended in creating a non-standard solution. In the procedural (e.g. SOAP) mode, this could be easily implemented as:

move(“Beyonce 30-the Birthday”,”My Playlist Group”,”Your Playlist Group”)

or if you use IDs:

move(1776, 1812, 1861)

In a REST-ian model, this action enlists three resources: playlist, source playlist group and target playlist group. Which resource is this operation to be based upon? The playlist or one of the playlist groups? Which HTTP method should be used: POST or PUT? One example:

PUT /playlist/1776

<source id=”1812″/>
<target id=”1865″/>

Subbu Allamaraju – a Yahoo REST thought leader – has proposed the “Account Transfer Pattern” where you create a new resource that atomically encompasses the participant resources. He also specified the operation as a POST – we are creating a new “transfer” resource – in this case a transfer of a playlist from one group to another.

To summarize, there is no standard REST “spec” or common usage for such use cases – and it is up to each application to create its own composite resources with non-trivial cognitive overhead.

Distributing and Recalling a Video

Another example was a new requirement that we add the capability of distributing and recalling a video. Conceptually (in an OO non-RESTian manner) this tells me to add a new method on the video object. But I don’t have this ability in REST for I am limited to the four holy verbs. So do I create new resources such as:

  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/videodistribute
  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/videorecall

To distribute a video, do I use a POST or PUT? But this just doesn’t seem intuitively correct to me. After some pondering I decided upon:

  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/videos/distribute
  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/videos/recall

using a POST where the request body contained a list of video IDs to distribute or recall plus other information such as a message.


REST is a good fit for manipulating individual resources, but when it comes to manipulating several resources at once things get a bit more difficult. The main problem with batching is how do we successfully report errors for those batch items that failed and those that did not? The whole HTTP error mechanism proves inadequate here. If we submit ten items in a batch job and three fail, we do not want to return a 400 since this would not correctly convey that seven had succeeded. We are left with the task of inventing our own mechanism – again a non-standard way to solve a standard problem.

There has been recognition of this problem in the REST community, and each application is providing its own conventions – for one example, see Youtube batching .

Using our video example, a regular singular get is:

  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/videos/1492

Now we want to “batch-ify” the resource:

  • /service/v1/ACCOUNT/videos/1492,1519

Simple enough you say – just return a list of video representations. But what if 1492 doesn’t exist and 1519 does exist. In the singular version we can return the conventional 404. In the batch version, we don’t have this option and ultimately we have to somehow convey those batch items that succeeded and those that didn’t. We have to then enhance our response data format to contain this information. Things get messy pretty quickly.

In the first SOAP-based incarnation of the service, we had actually designed all our SOAP operations as batch. Every response object was derived from a base class that had a list of result statuses (success or error) and the actual result data if successful. Although this was a clean solution, for those clients that were only manipulating one object this proved irksome. Furthermore, implementing batch on the back end is a non-trivial exercise. Nevertheless, for those business use cases and for performance sake (i.e. avoiding multiple remote calls) batch is needed.


Alas, as Fred Brooks pointed out a while back, there is no silver bullet in our business! REST excels for “simple” cases – but the case can be made that SOAP has better support for arbitrary non-CRUD complex usage scenarios.

Web Linking

We all know that web linking is a “good” thing, but again, when it comes time implement it things get get a bit sticky. But that “we” might not extend to the business people involved in the resource modeling. Typically business folks aren’t that well versed in REST-ian convention and don’t really care that much. They just want the job done with minimal cost. Furthermore, IDs can be simpler to understand and manipulate. Amazon Web services deal in IDs.

<link href=”1618″ />


<link href=”; />

Our particular business requirements made links especially problematic. Firstly, the business wanted to use genre names and not IDs. IDs were too hard to remember and to keep track of. As long as both names and IDs are unique, this could have been done. However, our genres were hierarchical and names were not unique but full genre paths were. For example, “animals/canines/dogs” instead of “dogs” since there was nothing to prohibit you from having “pets/dogs”. As you can see, putting a slash delimited path in the URI can be confusing.

Furthermore, our requirements were to only expose genres and permissions as collections and there was no requirement to expose singular versions. GET service/v1/ACCOUNT/genres would return a collection of genre representations but service/v1/ACCOUNT/genres/1618 would return a 404. Granted it seems inconsistent and “not pretty”, but the alternative is to deploy and test a feature the business doesn’t explicitly want. So web links to individual genres could not be dereferenced – you would get a 404!

The outcome was to add a “kind” attribute to the link element with three possible values: id, name or uri. We rolled out the application using id or name links but retained the ability to support uri in the future.

Another problem with the uri version is that it required quite a bit of extra work on the implementation side since the request context had to be passed down the stack to every place a reference was being constructed. It wasn’t sufficient just to have the object’s ID or name – we also had to have the current URL of the application. Again, the devil is in the details.


There has been apparent movement to using WADL as a service definition language a la WSDL.
Some preliminary thoughts on WADL:

  • A good idea in theory – in practice questions remain.
  • Most surprising and interesting is that WADL hasn’t been improved since Nov. 2006. Que pasa? Does anyone own this still? Progress is needed, is anyone responsible for this? Hmmm. Red-ish flags.
  • Current WADL doesn’t really support the DRY principal – resource-wide features (query parameters, request/response headers, XML representatons) are not specified in one place. Instead, they are repeated in-line for every resource URI. For any REST API with a significant number of resources, this quickly leads to repetitive, confusing and overwhelming feature descriptions.


The REST service was implemented as a Java web application with a custom in-house REST framework based upon Spring. The reason for this was partially historical – the project had started as a skunks work and was substantially developed by the time it was officially blessed. So considering the compressed delivery schedule and limited resources, we went ahead with what we had. In addition, I had reservations about the maturity of two prime candidate frameworks – restlet and Jersey.

Neither had self-evident easy support of Spring and that was a deal breaker in itself. Jersey at that time didn’t seem mature enough plus I have reservations about its exclusive use of annotations to define the REST contract. Mixing service-level declarative information with implementation Java code is not a good practice in my opinion even though it is popular in many circles today – the fad du jour syndrome. But that’s another topic. Furthermore our business requirements were relatively simple from the REST-ian perspective (no fancy matrix parameters or conneg) so the home-grown system was adequate.

Sidebar: I am pleasantly surprised with JPA’s well-thought out mechanism for over-riding annotations with XML descriptors. Too bad JAX-RS doesn’t provide a similar mechanism.

One thing I wished I had time to finish was a Spring namespace extension that defined a REST-ian DSL that could more succinctly capture REST declarative semantics. But time was short and darn – that Spring feature is quite complex. So many cool software toys – so little time.